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The Dollar Pauses But Is The Rally Really Over?
Can geographic information make you healthy? In 2001 I got hit by a train. My train was a heart attack. I found myself in a hospital in an intensive-care ward, recuperating from emergency surgery. And I suddenly realized something: that I was completely in the dark. I started asking my questions, “Well, why me?” “Why now?” “Why here?” “Could my doctor have warned me?”
So, what I want to do here in the few minutes I have with you is really talk about what is the formula for life and good health. Genetics, lifestyle and environment. That’s going to sort of contain our risks, and if we manage those risks we’re going to live a good life and a good healthy life. Well, I understand the genetics and lifestyle part. And you know why I understand that? Because my physicians constantly ask me questions about this.
Have you ever had to fill out those long, legal-size forms in your doctor’s office? I mean, if you’re lucky enough you get to do it more than once, right? (Laughter) Do it over and over again. And they ask you questions about your lifestyle and your family history, your medication history, your surgical history, your allergy history . did I forget any history?
But this part of the equation I didn’t really get, and I don’t think my physicians really get this part of the equation. What does that mean, my environment? Well, it can mean a lot of things. This is my life. These are my life places. We all have these. While I’m talking I’d like you to also be thinking about: How many places have you lived?
Just think about that, you know, wander through your life thinking about this. And you realize that you spend it in a variety of different places. You spend it at rest and you spend it at work. And if you’re like me, you’re in an airplane a good portion of your time traveling some place. So, it’s not really simple when somebody asks you, “Where do you live, where do you work, and where do you spend all your time? And where do you expose yourselves to risks that maybe perhaps you don’t even see?” Well, when I have done this on myself, I always come to the conclusion that I spend about 75 percent of my time relatively in a small number of places. And I don’t wander far from that place for a majority of my time, even though I’m an extensive global trekker.
Now, I’m going to take you on a little journey here. I started off in Scranton, Pennsylvania. I don’t know if anybody might hail from northeastern Pennsylvania, but this is where I spent my first 19 years with my little young lungs. You know, breathing high concentrations here of sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and methane gas, in unequal quantities — 19 years of this. And if you’ve been in that part of the country, this is what those piles of burning, smoldering coal waste look like.
So then I decided to leave that part of the world, and I was going to go to the mid-west. OK, so I ended up in Louisville, Kentucky. Well, I decided to be neighbors to a place called Rubbertown. They manufacture plastics. They use large quantities chloroprene and benzene. Okay, I spent 25 years, in my middle-age lungs now, breathing various concentrations of that. And on a clear day it always looked like this, so you never saw it. It was insidious and it was really happening.
Then I decided I had to get really smart, I would take this job in the West Coast. And I moved to Redlands California. Very nice, and there my older, senior lungs, as I like to call them, I filled with particulate matter, carbon dioxide and very high doses of ozone. Okay? Almost like the highest in the nation. Alright, this is what it looks like on a good day. If you’ve been there, you know what I’m talking about.
So, what’s wrong with this picture? Well, the picture is, there is a huge gap here. The one thing that never happens in my doctor’s office: They never ask me about my place history. No doctor, can I remember, ever asking me, “Where have you lived?” They haven’t asked me what kind of the quality of the drinking water that I put in my mouth or the food that I ingest into my stomach. They really don’t do that. It’s missing. Look at the kind of data that’s available. This data’s from all over the world — countries spend billions of dollars investing in this kind of research.
Now, I’ve circled the places where I’ve been. Well, by design, if I wanted to have a heart attack I’d been in the right places. Right? So, how many people are in the white? How many people in the room have spent the majority of their life in the white space? Anybody? Boy you’re lucky. How many have spent it in the red places? Oh, not so lucky. There are thousands of these kinds of maps that are displayed in atlases all over the world. They give us some sense of what’s going to be our train wreck. But none of that’s in my medical record. And it’s not in yours either.
So, here’s my friend Paul. He’s a colleague. He allowed his cell phone to be tracked every two hours, 24/7, 365 days out of the year for the last two years, everywhere he went. And you can see he’s been to a few places around the United States. And this is where he has spent most of his time. If you really studied that you might have some clues as to what Paul likes to do. Anybody got any clues? Ski. Right. We can zoom in here, and we suddenly see that now we see where Paul has really spent a majority of his time. And all of those black dots are all of the toxic release inventories that are monitored by the EPA.
Did you know that data existed? For every community in the United States, you could have your own personalized map of that. So, our cell phones can now build a place history. This is how Paul did it. He did it with his iPhone. This might be what we end up with.
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This is what the physician would have in front of him and her when we enter that exam room instead of just the pink slip that said I paid at the counter. Right? This could be my little assessment. And he looks at that and he says, “Whoa Bill, I suggest that maybe you not decide, just because you’re out here in beautiful California, and it’s warm every day, that you get out and run at six o’clock at night. I’d suggest that that’s a bad idea Bill, because of this report.”
What I’d like to leave you for are two prescriptions. Okay, number one is, we must teach physicians about the value of geographical information. It’s called geomedicine. There are about a half a dozen programs in the world right now that are focused on this. And they’re in the early stages of development. These programs need to be supported, and we need to teach our future doctors of the world the importance of some of the information I’ve shared here with you today.
The second thing we need to do is while we’re spending billions and billions of dollars all over the world building an electronic health record, we make sure we put a place history inside that medical record. It not only will be important for the physician; it will be important for the researchers that now will have huge samples to draw upon. But it will also be useful for us. I could have made the decision, if I had this information, not to move to the ozone capital of the United States, couldn’t I? I could make that decision. Or I could negotiate with my employer to make that decision in the best interest of myself and my company.
With that, I would like to just say that Jack Lord said this almost 10 years ago. Just look at that for a minute. That was what the conclusion of the Dartmouth Atlas of Healthcare was about, was saying that we can explain the geographic variations that occur in disease, in illness, in wellness, and how our healthcare system actually operates. That was what he was talking about on that quote. And I would say he got it right almost a decade ago. So, I’d very much like to see us begin to really seize this as an opportunity to get this into our medical records. So with that, I’ll leave you that in my particular view of view of health: Geography always matters. And I believe that geographic information can make both you and me very healthy. Thank you. (Applause)
Раздел 1. Аудирование
Вы услышите четыре коротких диалога, обозначенных A, B, C и D. Определите, где происходит каждый из диалогов. Используйте каждое место действия из списка 1-5 только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее место действия. Вы услышите запись дважды. У вас есть 20 секунд, чтобы ознакомиться с заданием.
Нажмите , чтобы прослушать запись
2. In the restaurant
3. In the exhibition
5. In the office
Вы услышите пять высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего А-E и утверждениями, данными в списке 1-6. Используйте каждое утверждение из списка 1-6 только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. У вас есть 30 секунд, чтоб ознакомиться с заданием.
Нажмите , чтобы прослушать запись
1. The speaker talks about the first mentions.
2. The speaker talks about one of the explanations.
3. The speaker talks about the space researches.
4. The speaker talks about disappearance without calls for rescue.
5. The speaker talks about unexplainable failure of the equipment.
6. The speaker talks about the event that gave a name to this mysterious place.
Вы услышите разговор. В заданиях 3-8 в поле ответа запишите одну цифру, которая соответствует номеру правильного.
Нажмите , чтобы прослушать запись
Dr Manuel Gutierrez mainly works with_____.
1. pets of celebrities
2. exotic animals
Dr Manuel Gutierrez states that the pets of his clients_____.
1. need special care
2. are like other pets
What is NOT TRUE according to Dr Gutierrez?
1. Pet-keepers live longer.
2. Pet-keepers live happier lives.
3. It’s beneficial to hire dog-walkers.
According to Dr Gutierrez having a pet is a sort of therapy because pets can_____.
1. understand people
2. compensate for the lack of company
3. help you to keep fit
Medical statistics prove that living with a pet_____.
1. raises cholesterol levels
2. reduces resistance to illnesses and stress
3. lowers blood pressure
According to Dr Gutierrez_____.
1. having a pet means responsibility
2. all people should have pets
3. pet-keeping is expensive
Раздел 2. Чтение
1. Dear to heart
2. Reliable assistant
3. Profitable business
4. Close friends origin
5. Abiliity to treat
6. Reasons for friendship
7. Useful abilities
8. Rescue workers
A. The partnership between humans and dogs began perhaps 14,000 years ago. Our first interactions may have occurred when wild dogs were attracted to human garbage, or humans may have acquired the puppies of wild dogs and trained them to be obedient pets. By means of the careful selection of dog parents, humans have been able to create a wonderful variety of dogs with plenty of talents and many different looks.
B. When did this remarkable partnership start? We know now that the wolf began working with people in the distant past. Over the years, the wolf became the talented domestic pet we know as the dog. There are plenty of theories, but the real reason why humans acquired dogs is still unknown. It might be a hunting partnership, companionship or a type of friendship. For 14000 years the dog has played an important role in human societies. It’s a partnership that’s likely to continue for many years to come.
C. Dogs are often known as man’s best friend. Many societies have them as pets or rely on them to perform a variety of tasks. The story of man and dog is a complex story that goes back thousands of years and will almost certainly go on for thousands more. Dogs interact with humans in a variety of ways. Dogs such as border collies are trained to herd livestock such as sheep. Huskies pull us through some of the coldest and the most dangerous places on Earth.
D. Dogs were probably first attracted to humans by the smell of our garbage. Nowadays, the governments of many countries have a use for those powerful noses that is beneficial to all who fly in airplanes. There are special trains for dogs to smell bombs on planes and in passengers’ luggage. For example, beagles perform their duties at airports, where their sense of smell helps them to find drugs and other illegal items in people’s luggage.
E. Dogs have a sense of smell 1,000 times more powerful than our own. This means they can search for people who are lost under deep snow, or under the debris of a collapsed building or deep in forest. You can find dogs in rescue services of many countries. A lot of lives were saved by dogs after the earthquakes and explosions in different parts of the world.
F. Special trained dogs help to ease the lives of thousands disabled people. They lead the blind people, for example. At the National Institutes of Health the dogs visit children who are fighting deadly diseases. They brighten patients’ days with love and give children a chance to exercise and help them to stay strong during their long hospitalization.
G. Whether as workers or objects of affection, dogs have certainly proven themselves to be beneficial to humans in many ways. For many, the dog is also an obedient companion and friend. In some families dogs are treated like a child. People carefully prepare special meal; give them the healthiest, most wonderful life possible for as long as possible. For single people, dogs are the best way to escape loneliness. At the same time, their special place as ‘man’s best friend’ has allowed dogs to survive in a human world.
Прочитайте текст. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений 10–17 соответствуют содержанию текста (1 – True), какие не соответствуют (2 – False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 – Not stated). В поле ответа запишите одну цифру, которая соответствует номеру правильного ответа.
Harriet Reeves was a famous actress but her great success made her very selfish and unkind to people. On the stage she always tried to attract the attention of the public only to herself, and after the performance she took no notice of her fellow actors. She always made promises but never kept them.
When she grew older she began to have heart attacks and had to retire.
Harriet had a lot of money and could afford to live quite comfortably, but by this time everybody in the theatre hated her and she felt quite lonely.
A year later on her birthday she did not receive a single flower or a telephone call. She was so upset that she had a bad heart attack. The doctor who examined her told her frankly that her chance of living was not too good and insisted that she should stay in bed as much as possible.
Harriet took the news bravely and for a couple of weeks followed the doctor’s instructions. But one day she could no longer be alone and called in her butler (= agent) to talk over a plan.
‘I want to give a big party next Saturday night,’ she said. ‘I shall invite all people with whom 1 worked at the theatre. I don’t doubt that they will come, as my parties with good food, drinks and music were always a success. Now I want you to make all the arrangements.’
Knowing how ill she was the butler tried to persuade her not to do it but she wouldn’t listen to him. The same evening the old actress wrote invitations to the theatre people. She thought she would get them together and apologize for her behavior in the past. ‘No doubt, I’ll make friends with some of them and my life will be different in future,’ she went on thinking.
At 10 o’clock on Saturday night none of the guests turned up. When Harriet realized that nobody would come to the party she suddenly felt weak and tired.
‘I can’t blame them for not coming. I myself used to break a lot of appointments,’ she said to the butler and started for her bedroom.
In a moment he heard a heavy fall. When he opened the door of her bedroom he saw Harriet Reeves lying on the floor. She was dead.
A few days later, when the butler was looking through the papers in her desk he discovered a pack of invitations Harriet had forgotten to post.
miércoles, 16 de abril de 2008
MODAL VERBS EXERCISE 7
Multiple Choice Exercise
1. I’m not really sure where Beverly is. She might be sitting in the living room, or perhaps she’s in the backyard.
2. Doug must have returned the video we rented on his way to work. It was on the table, but now it’s gone.
3. You ought to check the air pressure in your tires. You don’t want to get a flat tire on your trip.
4. The computer isn’t working. It must have been damaged during production.
5. The package should be delivered tomorrow afternoon. It was sent by express mail this morning.
6. You have to book the tickets for the play in advance – they sell out quickly.
7. You can’t mean that! You have got to be joking .
8. If Debbie hasn’t come home yet, she must still be waiting for us in the coffee shop.
9. Mike decided not to join us for lunch. He had to stay at work to finish the marketing report.
10. If I had gone with my friends to Jamaica, I would be lying on a white sand beach right now.
11. If I had gone with my friends to Jamaica, I would not have had to come to work this week.
12. If I had gone with my friends to Jamaica, I could have taken scuba diving lessons.
13. Margaret agreed to meet us at the entrance to the theater. She ought to be waiting for us when we get there.
14. It might have been Sam who called and didn’t leave a message on the answering machine. He said he wanted to get together with us this weekend.
15. The machine can be turned on by flipping this switch.
16. She might have been crying . That could have been why her eyes were so red and swollen.
17. If she was crying, she must have been very upset.
18. That painting might not have been painted by Picasso. It could be a forgery.
19. Your diving equipment must be cleaned regularly if you want to keep it in good condition.
20. If I hadn’t taken a taxi, I might have been waiting for you at the train station for hours.
MODAL VERBS EXERCISE 6
Multiple Choice Exercise
1.Donna: If I won the ten million dollar lottery jackpot, I could afford to quit my job and travel the world.
Sam: Where would you go if you had that much money?
Donna: I don’t know, I might choose to spend a year in Paris – or perhaps I might go to Kenya.
Sam: How often do you buy lottery tickets?
Donna: Never. I guess if I want to win the lottery, I should try buying some tickets.
Sam: That would help.
2.Waitress: Hi, my name is Sandy – I’ll be your waitress tonight. What can I get for you?
Tony: I haven’t decided yet. Is there anything you would recommend? Is there anything you think I should try?
Waitress: You might try the Cajun catfish – or perhaps the Gumbo. They’re both delicious.
Tony: That sounds wonderful, but that could be a little too spicy for me. Actually, the prawns sound good. Umm, could I have the barbecued prawns?
Waitress: Sure, would you like a salad with that?
3.Jan: What should we look for in a candidate when we vote in a presidential election?
Peter: I think citizens should vote for a President who has the ability to improve the quality of life in the United States.
Jan: What would you do if you were President of the United States?
Peter: I would focus on reducing environmental pollution.
Jan: Every candidate always says he’s going to do that, but it’s a really complicated problem – it’s not one which is easily solved. What makes you think you would actually stop pollution?
MODAL VERBS EXERCISE 5
may had better have got to shall
1. I know it’s rather rude, but may I ask you where you purchased that pocket watch? I have been looking for one like that for my father.
2. You had better look good for your interview if you want to get the sales job. You had better wear the white shirt and the maroon tie. I think that’ll look really professional.
3. I have got to be at work tomorrow by 7:00. I have got to give a marketing presentation to one of our clients.
4. It’s pretty hot in the desert at this time of year. If we are going to do some hiking, we had better take at least two or three quarts of water with us. Actually, it may be hotter than we expect out there – maybe we should take a gallon or more.
5. You may leave the table once you have finished your meal and politely excused yourself.
6. I can’t stand these people – I have got to get out of here. I’m going to take off for awhile while you get rid of them. When I get back, they had better be gone.
7. may I try a little of your Black Forest cake? It looks absolutely delicious – I have got to taste it!
8. You had better take along some cash. The restaurant may not accept credit cards.
9. You have got to take along some cash. The restaurant doesn’t accept credit cards.
10. shall we move into the living room? It’s more comfortable in there and there’s a beautiful view of the lake.
11. I’m not really sure if Susan is going to go snowboarding with us or not. She may decide to stay here and study for her Japanese final. She has got to get a good score on the test if she wants to qualify to study abroad in Tokyo next semester.
12. may I have a look at that necklace there in the display case. It’s exactly what I’ve been looking for.
13. We shall no longer suffer the injustice of oppression. We shall never give up the struggle for freedom!
14. You have got to be joking! If you think I’m going to give you a tip after you mixed up the meal orders, spilled wine on me and insulted my wife, you had better get your head examined.
15. Ian, Evelyn and Deborah will be attending the conference. I shall be attending as well.
MODAL VERBS EXERCISE 4
Multiple Choice Exercise
1. Unfortunately, James and Michelle had already made plans, so they couldn’t come with us to the exhibition at the Museum of Contemporary Art.
2. They have had several major snow storms in the mountains during the last month. We had better call the highway patrol to check road conditions. The road to Smithsville might not be passable.
3. We should call Tim before we go over to his house; he might not be there. I don’t want to drive all the way there for nothing.
4. In order to win the pie eating contest, Norman would have to eat sixteen pies in ten minutes. He couldn’t possibly eat that many pies – he would explode!
5. I know Eve wants to go to the ballet with us, but we’d better call her before we get her ticket. She works Wednesday nights, and she might not be able to get time off that evening.
6. Susan couldn’t hear the speaker because the crowd was cheering so loudly.
7. It might not be a bad idea to take some snacks along while we’re hiking. Last time, we got so hungry we had to come back early without finishing the hike.
8. Jerry might be angry, or he might not . You never really know with him because he’s so temperamental.
9. Jerry couldn’t be angry at me. I’ve never done anything to upset him.
10. The lamp might not be broken. Maybe the light bulb just burned out.
11. When you were a child, you could swim from here to the little island in the middle of the river, couldn’t you? At least, that’s what your father told me.
12. She couldn’t possibly be the winner of the talent show! The other acts were much better than hers.
13. Frank and Sarah couldn’t get tickets to the concert. The concert was sold out a little over an hour after tickets went on sale.
14. I heard that band is really popular, and tickets sell out quickly. You might not get tickets if you wait too long.
15. That concert has been sold out for weeks. You couldn’t get tickets even if you knew the band personally. It’s impossible!
16. It might not be a bad idea to get a car alarm for your new sports car. New cars tend to attract thieves.
17. That couldn’t possibly be Mr. Jones. He’s lost so much weight that he looks like a completely different person.
18. You couldn’t do the job if you didn’t speak Arabic fluently.
19. Jane and Bill might not have gotten the invitation to the party. Perhaps, that’s why they didn’t show up. I doubt they would actually skip your birthday party – they’re your best friends!20. I couldn’t have left my keys at Simon’s house. I wouldn’t have been able to drive home if I had done that. They must be somewhere here in the apartment. Let’s keep looking.
MODAL VERBS EXERCISE 3
might must should
1. Nancy said you didn’t need to buy her anything for her birthday, but I really think you should at least get her some flowers or a nice bottle of wine.
2. Debbie said she was really busy this week, but I think she might show up at the party if she doesn’t have to work overtime on Friday.
3. Nina said she would come over right after work, so she should be here by 6:00.
4. Oh my God, he’s unconscious. Don’t move him – he might have internal injuries. Somebody call an ambulance.
5. You must be kidding! That can’t be true.
6. Dan: Where’s the remote control? I want to change the channel. Fiona: I don’t know. It might be under the couch. Or, perhaps I absent-mindedly took it into the kitchen. I’ll check in there.
7. For most people, learning a language is a challenging undertaking. Experts agree that to make the most of your language learning experience, you must practice the language regularly and push yourself to maintain old vocabulary while acquiring new words and expressions.
8. New research suggests that exercise can reduce the chance of heart disease as well as cancer. That’s why I told my father that he should start walking once a day.
9. We should invite Sally and her husband to come to the picnic on Saturday. We haven’t seen them in weeks, and they might really enjoy a nice day at the beach.
10. Tim: While I was a student, I spent a year and a half studying Pygmy culture in the Central African Republic. My research focused on unique aspects of the their social structure and religion. Simona: That must have been absolutely fascinating!
11. We had better call Tony to see if he’s at home before we go over to his house. He might not be there and we don’t want to drive all the way over there for nothing.
12. At first, my boss didn’t want to hire Sam. But, because I had previously worked with Sam, I told my boss that he should take another look at his resume and reconsider him for the position.
13. You shouldn’t worry so much. It doesn’t do you any good. Either you get the job, or you don’t. If you don’t, just apply for another one. Eventually, you will find work.
14. I would love to go on the cruise to Tahiti with Robin and Michelle. But such a luxurious trip must cost a fortune. I doubt I could afford something like that.
15. The book recommends adding fresh soil and using plant food to make your garden flowers grow. Since some people might be allergic to chemicals in artificial plant foods, the book says that you should use an organic brand to avoid skin irritations.
MODAL VERBS EXERCISE 2
must have to
1. I have to be at the meeting by 10:00. I will probably have to take a taxi if I want to be on time.
2. You mustn’t submit the application if it has not been completely filled out. Check that the name, address, and background information are correct. If the form is not accurate and complete, you will be rejected and you will have to reapply at a later date.
3. Tina: Look at these flowers – they’re beautiful! But, there’s no card. Who could have sent them?Stephanie: It must have been David. He’s the only one who would send you flowers.
4. You mustn’t forget to pay the rent tomorrow. The landlord is very strict about paying on time.
5. You don’t have to be so rude! Why don’t you try saying “please” once in a while.
6. If you are over 18 in California, you don’t have to take a driver training course to get a driver’s license. You can have a friend or a family member teach you instead. But remember, you must still get your permit before you start practicing.
7. You don’t have to be rich to be a success. Some of the most successful people I know haven’t got a penny to their name.
8. Ed: My car broke down in Death Valley last week. I had to have it towed more than a hundred miles to the nearest mechanic.Lilly: That must have cost a fortune!
9. While hiking in Alaska, you must keep an eye out for bears. If you see one, you mustn’t approach it. They are beautiful animals; however, they are wild and unpredictable in nature. You don’t have to be afraid of them, but educating yourself about the dangers can help keep you safe.
10. I don’t have to go to work tomorrow because it is Memorial Day. The best thing about a day off from work is that I don’t have to get up at 6:00; I can sleep in till noon if I want to.
11. Yesterday, I had to cram all day for my French final. I didn’t get to sleep until after midnight.
12. Nate: Oh no! I completely forgot we were supposed to pick Jenny up at the airport.Barbara: She must still be sitting there waiting for us.
13. Ingrid received a scholarship to Yale University which will cover 100% of the tuition. She doesn’t have to worry at all about the increasing cost of education.
14. When I was a child my grandmother was continually correcting our manners. She always used to say, “One mustn’t eat with one’s mouth open.” Or, she would correct us by saying, “One mustn’t rest one’s elbows on the table.” And every time I wanted to leave the table, she would say, “One must ask to be excused.”
15. I’ve redone this math problem at least twenty times, but my answer is wrong according to the answer key. The answer in the book must be wrong!
MODAL VERBS EXERCISE 1
can could have to must might should
Tổng hợp bài tập về các dạng của từ (Word formation)
Phần này sẽ gồm các bài tập về các dạng của từ.
WORD FORMATION EXERCISES
1. Detroit is renowned for the………….. of cars. PRODUCE
2. If you make a good……………… at the interview, you will get the job. IMPRESS
3. Teaching and medicine are more than…………………., they’re professions. OCCUPY
4. My history teacher has a vast…………………. of past events. KNOW
5. You are never too old to go to college and gain some……………. QUALIFY
6. My greatest…………….. was graduating from the university. ACHIEVE
7. The weatherman said there is a strong…………… of rain today. POSSIBLE
8. Some old laws are no longer……………….. EFFECT
9. Athens is…………………. for its ancient buildings. FAME
10. He was caught shoplifting so now he has a……………….. record. CRIME
11. Despite her severe…………. she fulfilled her goals in life. DISABLE
12. Being……………. is the worst thing that can happen to someone. EMPLOY
13. If you buy presents in the summer your…………………… can be very high. SAVE
14. Due to the pilot’s…………………, the copilot managed to land safely. GUIDE
15. It’s important to also see the less………………… sides of the job. DESIRE
16. I was surprised at his………………… to give up. REFUSE
17. Children are by nature………………….. of danger. AWARE
18. She is always……………. towards her parents. RESPECT
19. The hospital has the best medical……………. and fast ambulances. EQUIP
20. You can relax in the comfortable………………….. of the hotel. SURROUND
21. The…………………….. looked dark and there were hardly any other guests. ENTER
22. Artists must be…………………., otherwise they just repeat what they see or hear. CREATE
23. Why are you so……………… of his work? He’s just doing his best. CRITIC
24. Have you made up your mind? We need to know your ……………as soon as possible. DECIDE
25. He’s too shy to look people …………………… when he talks to them. DIRECT
26. Have they put the Christmas………………….. yet? DECORATE
27. They put too many unnecesary ……………………… in food. ADD
28. I ……………… think that there’s no point in arguing with him. Just ignore him. HONEST
29. Extraterrestrial life has not been…………………. proved yet. SCIENCE
30. Why don’t you call the …………………. if the lights don’t work? ELECTRIC
31. Music and television are forms of………………… ENTERTAIN
32. The concert didn’t live up to our………………… EXPECT
33. The electric company admitted their ………………… for the blackout. RESPOND
34. Did you use to have …………………… as a child? ALLOW
35. I don’t like those trousers, no matter how …………………….. they are. FASHION
36. Life ……………….. varies according to country and gender. EXPECT
1) We need to find a __________ to the problem as soon as possible. (solve)
2) Juan speaks English fluently and makes very few __________ mistakes. (grammar)
3) The teacher keeps a record of every student’s __________ . (attend)
4) Air-conditioning is a ___________ if you live somewhere like the south of Spain. (necessary)
5) Don’t be afraid of the dog. He’s absolutely __________ . (harm)
6) The company is trying hard to improve customer __________ . (satisfy)
7) Measures were taken around the world to __________ airport security after the 11 September attacks. (tight)
We’re going to change our suppliers as they have become very __________ in the last year. (rely)
9) Patricia’s very __________ . She writes short stories, paints and makes mosaics. (create)
10) We need your __________ at the bottom of the page. (sign)
1) The index at the back of the book is in __________ order. (alphabet)
2) The fans waved __________ as the film star stepped out of the limousine. (excite)
3) Chickenpox is a highly __________ disease which many people catch as a child. (infect)
4) Matt is very __________ . He wants to be number one at everything. (compete)
5) Harry loves cars and he’s so __________ about them. (knowledge)
6) There is little __________ of the president being re-elected. (likely)
7) The prime minister thinks there may be a __________ to overthrow him. (conspire)
In __________ with Tokyo, London and Paris are relatively cheap. (compare)
9) The police were unable to __________ that she had committed the crime. (proof)
10) The president’s speech went on for so long that I almost died of __________ ! (bore)
1) Naomi and Kurt have three children. Naomi also has a daughter from a previous ________ . (marry)
2) The film was so ________ . You knew exactly how it was going to end. (predict)
3) The goverment is concerned about the significant rise in ________ . (homeless)
4) It has been ________ proven that stroking a cat can lower your blood pressure. (scientific)
5) Thanks to the large ________ from her grandmother Paula was able to buy a villa in the south of France. (inherit)
6) In the UK it is ________ to sell cigarettes to children under 16. (legal)
7) You can ________ your tea with honey instead of sugar. (sweet)
You need to _______ the final point of the presentation. It’s rather confusing. (clear)
9) The film turned out to be a big ________ . It was really quite boring. (disappoint)
10) The ________ between the city’s two football teams is often quite fierce. (rival)
1) Lizzy has just won a ________ to a world-renowned university. (scholar)
2) It’s ________ arguing with them. They are not going to change their mind. (point)
3) You will need your parents’ _______ if you want to go on the school trip. (permit)
4) It’s a wonderful restaurant. Great food and excellent service. We _______ recommend it! (high)
5) Thank you so much for the flowers. It’s very ________ of you. (thought)
6) Sarah speaks perfect French as she spent much of her __________ in Canada. (child)
7) I’ve ________ my wallet. Have you seen it anywhere? (place)
Don’t forget to ________ the modem when you have finished using it. (connect)
9) Ben sulks like a child when he doesn’t get his own way. He’s so ________ . (mature)
10) Oliver’s CV is truly _______ . He’s bound to get the job. (impress)
1. It’s totally……………..that you stayed home when you were sick.UNDERSTAND
2. Don’t laugh at his stupid jokes! You’ll only………..him to say them again. COURAGE
3. That sidewalk is (slip), I almost fell!
4. After Monday, I will no longer be a foreigner–I am receiving my (citizen)!
5. Arthur will be very lonely unless you (friend) him.
6. Every afternoon, the cooks (sharp) their knives in preparation for dinner.
7. I hate being around Mary Lou, she is so so (friendly).
8. The stock market crash of 1929 left my great-grandfather (penny).
9. I have a class at 8:00 a.m. but I always (sleep).
10. The groom may (veil) the bride only when their vows have been exchanged
11. I think we should try something else. That strategy seems way too (risk).
12. My father’s death left me with a great (empty) in my heart.
13. George W. Bush is pretending that he attacked Iraq to (liberty) the Iraqis.
14. Americans fought hard to earn their (free) from Britain.
15. When you work at a nuclear power plant, you have to be extremely (care).
16. Every time I think I’ve beaten you, you (do) me!
17. I had to take three months off when I was pregnant, but my boss has been very (understand).
18. He will (cork) the wine as soon as we are ready for dinner.
19. You need to work on your orthography so you don’t (spell) these words.
20. The weather (cast) looks bad for a picnic–rainy and windy!
We earn our _____ (LIVE) in America today in peaceful ______ (COMPETE) with people all across the Earth. Profound and _____ (POWER) forces are shaking and _____ (MAKE) our world, and the urgent question of our time is whether we can make change our friend and not our enemy. This new world has already _____ (RICH) the lives of millions of Americans who are able to _____ (COMPETITION) and win in it. But when most people are working harder for less, when others cannot work at all, when the cost of health care devastates families and threatens to _____ (BANK) our enterprises, great and small, when the fear of crime robs law abiding citizens of their _____ (FREE), and when millions of poor children cannot even imagine the lives we are calling them to lead, we have not made change our friend.
`It is simply this. That Space, as our _____ (MATH) have it, is spoken of as having three dimensions, which one may call _____ (LONG), Breadth, and _____ (THICK), and is always definable by _____ (REFER) to three planes, each at right angles to the others. But some philosophical people have been asking why THREE dimensions _____ (PARTICULAR) – why not another direction at right angles to the other three?–and have even tried to construct a Four-Dimension geometry. Professor Simon Newcomb was expounding this to the New York Mathematical Society only a month or so ago. You know how on a flat surface, which has only two dimensions, we can represent a figure of a three _____ (DIMENSION) solid, and _____ (SIMILAR) they think that by models of thee dimensions they could represent one of four–if they could master the _____ (PERCEIVE) of the thing. See?’
Key to exercise 8
1. mathematicians 2. length 3. thickness 4. reference 5. particularly
6. dimensional 7. similarly 8. Perspective
In the centre of the room, clamped to an upright easel, stood the full-length portrait of a young man of _____ (ORDINARY) personal beauty, and in front of it, some little _____ (DISTANT) away, was sitting the artist himself, Basil Hallward, whose sudden _____ (APPEAR) some years ago caused, at the time, such public _____ (EXCITE), and gave rise to so many strange conjectures. As the painter looked at the _____ (GRACE) and comely form he had so _____ (SKILL) mirrored in his art, a smile of ______ (PLEASE) passed across his face, and seemed about to linger there. But he _____ (SUDDEN) started up, and, closing his eyes, placed his fingers upon the lids, as though he sought to _____ (PRISON) within his brain some curious dream from which he feared he might _____ (WAKE).
1. I adore sentimental love stories. I’m very…………(romance)
2. My cousin used to be rather silly but he’s more………… these days. (sense)
3. You’re in a……… mood this morning.(cheer)
4. The service offers young people…………… advice on finding a job. (practice)
5. Could you give me a quick………… of how it works? (explain)
6. I thought the film was really……………(excite)
7. Sonya is the most…………… girl in the class. (intelligence)
8. I never get…………. with watching football. (bore)
9. My sister’s hobbies are quite………………. from mine. (differ)
10. My boyfriend is very………….. (attract)
11. My watch is old but it’s still very…………..(rely)
12. If you want to work as a stunnman you must be completely…………….(fear)
13. Astrologers charge a lot of money for their……………(predict)
14. The mother punished her child for being…………(obedience)
15. Flight attendants need to be…………… because they work irregular hours. (flexibility)
16. Jim’s a good teacher because he has a lot of……………(patient)
17. Unfortunately, their attempt to reach the North Pole was…………….(success)
18. Students who study hard will…………… get good grades in their exams. (probable)
19. She fell off the horse but……………. she wasn’t injured. (fortune)
20. I tried aerobics but it was too………… for me. (energy)
21. Who can resist the…………… of Hollywood? (glamorous)
22……………. is a problem msot teenagers have. (lonely)
23. He will never get to the top because he lacks…………..(motive)
24. This year’s harvest was one of the most…………….. since the record crop of 1985.(success)
25. It’s cool and quiet everywhere………….. in the kitchen. (exception)
1. The Sultan spent over fifty million dollars making the capital city’s main hotel the most……… in the country. luxury
2. Police working on solving the bank robbery have by chance…………… a plan to murder a leading politician. cover
3. We should go and eat at “Franco’s” which is………….. a great little restaurant. suppose
4. I left the house at 8am and stared at the empty garage in………….. My car was nowhere to be seen. Someone had stolen it! believe
5. If you have any problems finding things, just ask Roger. He is very…………… and will tell you where to find what you want. help
6. You paid $25 for a simple breakfast?! They have certainly…………… you! You should go back and complain. charge
7. The gang robbed three banks in the same city and all at about the same time. Not………. they were caught by the police during the fourth attempt. surprise
8. Sarina is only my half sister because we have………… mothers. differ
1. This queue hasn’t moved in five minutes. I’m getting a bit………….! patient
2. Politicians should spend some time living on the streets like………….. people have to and then they
would understand better the problems they have. home
3. Carl was calmly taking a photograph as this………….. large bear walked towards the car. It was a
terrifying experience. at least for me! astonish
4. If you go walking around the factory, ensure you have…………… clothing on. protect
5. Are you sure you have cleaned the kitchen? There is still a pretty………….. smell coming from it.
6. Although it isn’t definite we will see you tomorrow, it is quite………….. like
7. Be sure not to put more than three……………… of vodka into the mix, otherwise it will be too alcoholic. spoon
8. Finding a cure for cancer will be a huge ………….breakthrough for mankind. medicine
1. Buying and selling antiques can be a very …………..hobby if you know how to find a good bargain.
2. We were left without any money for the last part of our holiday because we had ………… the cost of the train ticket to Norway. estimate
3. Mr. Transom stared ………….. at the group of students talking in the corner and they shut up immediately. cross
4. Jennings is so …………enthusiastic about the game that his enthusiasm spreads to his team-mates and the result is usually a strong performance. wonder
5. I think I was …………. sacked and have decided to bring the company to court. fair
6. Have you seen my handbag John? It seems to have totally ………… ! appear
7. You know your father is the most ……….. person in the world. He is sure to be wearing one of his old sweaters to the party. fashion
8. People will need to see …………. provable information before they can believe in something like life on other planets. science
1. It isn’t very ………..that Paula is at home, is it? She usually works at this time. like
2. Megan was told by her dietician that she was becoming …………thin and should eat more. danger
3. ……….is the spice of life, says the proverb and everyone should try and do new things and meet new people to avoid becoming bored. vary
4. Harry had a difficult …………. and was brought up by an aunt and uncle living in the country. child
5. The whole dispute began after a small …………. over the money needed to finance the new company. agree
6. The introduction of insecticides in the 20th Century ………agriculture across the world. revolution
7. All the coastal towns in this area are …….. by strong tradition of dance and there is a festival of dance that takes place every August. character
8. My company has spent a lot of money building a new, ………factory which will nearly double production. computer
Exercise 15Bottom of Form
1. I was just trying to be …….. towards him and he accused me of wanting his money! friend
2. The south-west of England, for example Devon and Cornwall, is known as the …….part of the United Kingdom. sun
3. What you may think is ……….is really just over-enthusiasm. He would never harm anyone. hostile
4. Anyone being rude and ……… to our staff will be asked to leave the premises immediately. abuse
5. Men have more of a ……. to put weight on around the waist and stomach areas and this is something they should be aware of. tend
6. Three weeks after winning the lottery, Daniel Perkins had the ……. to lose a court case in which he was being sued for nearly $2million. fortune
7. The pharmaceutical company’s …….. have discovered a better way of combining medicines to create a flu remedy. search
8. The babies were put up for ………..when their mother was jailed for her part in the murder. adopt
1. Herbert has been a(n) ……..member of this company’s staff. I don’t know what I would do without him! dispense
2. The food at the restaurant was simply delicious. I just didn’t think there was enough ……. vary
3. Even though the actors did quite a poor job of bringing the book to the stage, the ……was of the highest quality. produce
4. Even though he is only 17, he is a very ………. tennis player who could have a big future in the game. promise
5. The stock market has risen ……….in the last six months and now is a good time to invest. consider
6. The …………of the printer is often believed to have been one of the most important of the last 500 years. invent
7. My brother chose that university because it does a very well recommended ……. course and that’s what he has always wanted to do. journalist
8. Hamish had the ………..to lose his job only three weeks after getting married. But things turned out alright in the end. fortune
1. There will be a special………….….meeting tomorrow morning at 9a.m which everyone has to attend. safe
2. The modernisation of the factory…………….productivity but unfortunately, many people lost their jobs. double
3. All students must take English and Mathematics. Then they must choose two other courses, but the course in International Relations is……………. option
4. It is my dream to work in the ship-building industry but unfortunately, there is so much…………around that I may have to alter my ambitions. employ
5. Too much of the food we eat nowadays is full of chemicals and other…………. add
6. Come to my house tomorrow,…………. as early as possible. prefer
7. I do like your new friend Jasper. He tells the funniest jokes and seems to be a very………young man.
8. He has just asked me for money again. That’s the……….time and he doesn’t seem to understand the word “no”! three
1. How long do we have to sit in this police station waiting. It’s making me feel very………watching all these criminals walking past. easy
2. He did a great report on the future of the ship-building industry but I didn’t agree with his……….at all. conclude
3. I’m afraid Mr. Perkins is…………..at the moment. He seems to be in a meeting. Is there any message you would like me to pass on to him? available
4. People with…………..have been demanding better access to the local government buildings downtown. They want a wheelchair ramp built and electric sliding doors. able
5. I don’t speak Spanish very well but I can read it quite……………. easy
6. I accepted the job without………….when I heard what the wage was! hesitate
7. Stop sitting there looking so bored and…………. Get up and find something to do! I don’t want you sitting around the house like this all summer. enthusiasm
8. Yesterday, the government announced a $10 million increase in the town’s budget to try and tackle the …………….problem that exists. house
Key to exercise 1
1. production 2. impression 25. directly
3. occupations 4. knowledge 26. decorations
5. qualification 6. achievement 27. additives
7. possibility 8. effective 28. honestly
9. famous 10. criminal 29. scientifically
11. disability 12. unemployed 30. electrician
13. savings 14. guidance 31. entertainment
15. desirable 16. refusal 32. expectation
17. unaware 18.rRespectful 33. responsibility
19. equipment 20. surroundings 34. allowance
21. entrance 22. Creative 35. fashionable
23. critical 24. Decision 36. expectancy
Key to exercise 2
1) solution 6) satisfaction 2) grammatical 7) tighten
3) attendance unreliable 4) necessity 9) creative
5) harmless 10) signature
Key to exercise 3
1) alphabetical 6) likelihood 2) excitedly 7) conspiracy
3) infectious comparison 4) competitive 9) prove
5) knowledgeable 10) boredom
Key to exercise 4
1) marriage 6) illegal 2) predictable 7) sweeten
3) homelessness clarify 4) scientifically 9) disappointment
5) inheritance 10) rivalry
Key to exercise 5
1) scholarship 6) childhood 2) pointless 7) misplaced
3) permission disconnect 4) highly 9) immature
5) thoughtful 10) impressive
Key to exercise 6
1. understandable 11. risky 2. encourage 12. emptiness
3. slippery 13. liberate 4. citizenship 14. freedom
5. befriend 15. careful 6. sharpen 16. outdo
7. unfriendly 17. understanding 8. penniless 18. uncork
9. oversleep 19. misspell 10. unveil 20. forecast!
Key to exercise 7
1. livelihood 2. competition 3. powerful 4. making
5. enriched 6. compete 7. bankrupt 8. freedom
Key to exercise 8
1. mathematicians 2. length 3. thickness 4. reference
5. particularly 6. dimensional 7. similarly 8. Perspective
Key to exercise 9
1. extraordinary 2. distance 3. disappearance 4. excitement
5. gracious 6. skillfully 7. pleasure 8. suddenly
9. imprisoned 10. Awake
Key to exercise 11
1. luxurious. 5. helpful 2. uncovered 6. overcharged
3. supposedly 7. surprisingly
4. disbelief 8. Different
Key to exercise 12
1. impatient 5. unpleasant 2. homeless 6. likely
3. astonishingly 7. spoonfuls 4. protective 8. Medical
Key to exercise 13
1. profitable 5. unfairly 2. underestimated 6. disappeared
3. crossly 7. fashionable 4. wonderfully 8. Scientifically
Key to exercise 14
1. likely 5. disagreement 2. dangerously 6. revolutionized
3. variety 7. characterized 4. childhood 8. Computerized
Key to exercise 15
1. friendly 5. tendency 2. sunny 6. misfortune
3. hostility 7. researchers 4. abusive 8. Adoption
Key to exercise 16
1. indispensable. 5. considerably 2. variety 6. invention
3. production 7. journalism 4. promising 8. Misfortune
Key to exercise 17
1. safety 5. additives 2. doubled 6. preferably
3. optional 7. entertaining 4. unemployment 8. third.
Key to exercise 18
1. uneasy 5. easily 2. conclusion 6. hesitation
3. unavailable 7. unenthusiastic 4. disabilities 8. housing
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