Selling (Going Short) Sugar Futures to Profit from a Fall in Sugar Prices

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12 Simple Tips to Prevent Blood Sugar Spikes

Blood sugar spikes occur when your blood sugar rises and then falls sharply after you eat.

In the short term, they can cause lethargy and hunger. Over time, your body may not be able to lower blood sugar effectively, which can lead to type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes is a rising health problem. In fact, 29 million Americans have diabetes, and 25% of them don’t even know they have it ( 1 ).

Blood sugar spikes can also cause your blood vessels to harden and narrow, which can lead to a heart attack or stroke.

This article looks at 12 simple things you can do to prevent blood sugar spikes.

Carbohydrates (carbs) are what cause blood sugar to rise.

When you eat carbs, they are broken down into simple sugars. Those sugars then enter the bloodstream.

As your blood sugar levels rise, your pancreas releases a hormone called insulin, which prompts your cells to absorb sugar from the blood. This causes your blood sugar levels to drop.

Many studies have shown that consuming a low-carb diet can help prevent blood sugar spikes ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ).

Low-carb diets also have the added benefit of aiding weight loss, which can also reduce blood sugar spikes ( 6 , 7 , 8 , 9).

There are lots of ways to reduce your carb intake, including counting carbs. Here’s a guide on how to do it.

Summary: A low-carb diet can help prevent blood sugar spikes and aid weight loss. Counting carbs can also help.

Refined carbs, otherwise known as processed carbs, are sugars or refined grains.

Some common sources of refined carbs are table sugar, white bread, white rice, soda, candy, breakfast cereals and desserts.

Refined carbs have been stripped of almost all nutrients, vitamins, minerals and fiber.

Refined carbs are said to have a high glycemic index because they are very easily and quickly digested by the body. This leads to blood sugar spikes.

A large observational study of more than 91,000 women found that a diet high in high-glycemic-index carbs was associated with an increase in type 2 diabetes ( 10 ).

The spike in blood sugar and subsequent drop you may experience after eating high-glycemic-index foods can also promote hunger and can lead to overeating and weight gain ( 11 ).

The glycemic index of carbs varies. It’s affected by a number of things, including ripeness, what else you eat and how the carbs are cooked or prepared.

Generally, whole-grain foods have a lower glycemic index, as do most fruits, non-starchy vegetables and legumes.

Summary: Refined carbs have almost no nutritional value and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and weight gain.

The average American consumes 22 teaspoons (88 grams) of added sugar per day. That translates to around 350 calories (12).

While some of this is added as table sugar, most of it comes from processed and prepared foods, such as candy, cookies and sodas.

You have no nutritional need for added sugar like sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup. They are, in effect, just empty calories.

Your body breaks these simple sugars down very easily, causing an almost immediate spike in blood sugar.

Studies show that consuming sugars is associated with developing insulin resistance.

This is when the cells fail to respond as they should to the release of insulin, resulting in the body not being able to control blood sugar effectively ( 13 , 14 ).

In 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) changed the way foods have to be labeled in the US. Foods now have to display the amount of added sugars they contain in grams and as a percentage of the recommended daily maximum intake.

An alternative option to giving up sugar entirely is to replace it with natural sugar substitutes.

Summary: Sugar is effectively empty calories. It causes an immediate blood sugar spike and high intake is associated with insulin resistance.

At present, two out of three adults in the US are considered to be overweight or obese (15).

Being overweight or obese can make it more difficult for your body to use insulin and control blood sugar levels.

This can lead to blood sugar spikes and a corresponding higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

The precise ways it works are still unclear, but there’s lots of evidence linking obesity to insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes ( 16 , 17 , 18 ).

Weight loss, on the other hand, has been shown to improve blood sugar control.

In one study, 35 obese people lost an average of 14.5 pounds (6.6 kg) over 12 weeks while they were on a diet of 1,600 calories a day. Their blood sugar dropped by an average of 14% ( 19 ).

In another study of people without diabetes, weight loss was found to decrease the incidence of developing type 2 diabetes by 58% ( 20 ).

Summary: Being overweight makes it difficult for your body to control blood sugar levels. Even losing a little weight can improve your blood sugar control.

Exercise helps control blood sugar spikes by increasing the sensitivity of your cells to the hormone insulin.

Exercise also causes muscle cells to absorb sugar from the blood, helping to lower blood sugar levels (21).

Both high-intensity and moderate-intensity exercise have been found to reduce blood sugar spikes.

One study found similar improvements in blood sugar control in 27 adults who carried out either medium- or high-intensity exercise ( 22 ).

Whether you exercise on an empty or full stomach could have an effect on blood sugar control.

One study found exercise performed before breakfast controlled blood sugar more effectively than exercise done after breakfast ( 23 ).

Increasing exercise also has the added benefit of helping with weight loss, a double whammy to combat blood sugar spikes.

Summary: Exercise increases insulin sensitivity and stimulates cells to remove sugar from the blood.

Fiber is made up of the parts of plant food that your body can’t digest.

It is often divided into two groups: soluble and insoluble fiber.

Soluble fiber, in particular, can help control blood sugar spikes.

It dissolves in water to form a gel-like substance that helps slow the absorption of carbs in the gut. This results in a steady rise and fall in blood sugar, rather than a spike ( 24 , 25 ).

Fiber can also make you feel full, reducing your appetite and food intake ( 26 ).

Good sources of soluble fiber include:

  • Oatmeal
  • Nuts
  • Legumes
  • Some fruits, such as apples, oranges and blueberries
  • Many vegetables

Summary: Fiber can slow the absorption of carbs and the release of sugar into the blood. It can also reduce appetite and food intake.

Not drinking enough water can lead to blood sugar spikes.

When you are dehydrated, your body produces a hormone called vasopressin. This encourages your kidneys to retain fluid and stop the body from flushing out excess sugar in your urine.

It also prompts your liver to release more sugar into the blood ( 27 , 28 , 29 ).

One study of 3,615 people found that those who drank at least 34 ounces (about 1 liter) of water a day were 21% less likely to develop high blood sugar than those who drank 16 ounces (473 ml) or less a day ( 28 ).

A long-term study on 4,742 people in Sweden found that, over 12.6 years, an increase of vasopressin in the blood was linked to an increase in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes ( 30 ).

How much water you should drink is often up for discussion. Essentially, it depends on the individual.

Always make sure you drink as soon as you’re thirsty and increase your water intake during hot weather or while exercising.

Stick to water rather than sugary juice or sodas, since the sugar content will lead to blood sugar spikes.

Summary: Dehydration negatively affects blood sugar control. Over time, it can lead to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

Vinegar, particularly apple cider vinegar, has been found to have many health benefits.

It has been linked to weight loss, cholesterol reduction, antibacterial properties and blood sugar control ( 31 , 32 , 33 ).

Several studies show that consuming vinegar can increase insulin response and reduce blood sugar spikes ( 31 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 ).

One study found vinegar significantly reduced blood sugar in participants who had just consumed a meal containing 50 grams of carbs. The study also found that the stronger the vinegar, the lower the blood sugar ( 31 ).

Another study looked into the effect of vinegar on blood sugar after participants consumed carbs. It found that vinegar increased insulin sensitivity by between 19% and 34% ( 37 ).

The addition of vinegar can also lower the glycemic index of a food, which can help reduce blood sugar spikes.

A study in Japan found that adding pickled foods to rice decreased the glycemic index of the meal significantly ( 38 ).

Summary: Vinegar has been shown to increase insulin response and help control blood sugar when taken with carbs.

Studies show both chromium and magnesium can be effective in controlling blood sugar spikes.


Chromium is a mineral that you need in small amounts.

It is thought to enhance the action of insulin. This could help control blood sugar spikes by encouraging the cells to absorb sugar from the blood.

In one small study, 13 healthy men were given 75 grams of white bread with or without chromium added. The addition of chromium resulted in about a 20% reduction in blood sugar following the meal ( 39 ).

However, findings on chromium and blood sugar control are mixed. An analysis of 15 studies concluded that there was no effect of chromium on blood sugar control in healthy people ( 40 ).

Recommended dietary intakes for chromium can be found here. Rich food sources include broccoli, egg yolks, shellfish, tomatoes and Brazil nuts.


Magnesium is another mineral that has been linked to blood sugar control.

In one study of 48 people, half were given a 600-mg magnesium supplement along with lifestyle advice, while the other half were just given lifestyle advice. Insulin sensitivity increased in the group given magnesium supplements ( 41 ).

Another study investigated the combined effects of supplementing with chromium and magnesium on blood sugar. They found that a combination of the two increased insulin sensitivity more than either supplement alone ( 42 ).

Recommended dietary intakes for magnesium can be found here. Rich food sources include spinach, almonds, avocados, cashews and peanuts.

Summary: Chromium and magnesium may help increase insulin sensitivity. Evidence shows they may be more effective together.

Cinnamon and fenugreek have been used in alternative medicine for thousands of years. They have both been linked to blood sugar control.


The scientific evidence for the use of cinnamon in blood sugar control is mixed.

In healthy people, cinnamon has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity and reduce blood sugar spikes following a carb-based meal ( 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 ).

One of these studies followed 14 healthy people.

It found that eating 6 grams of cinnamon with 300 grams of rice pudding significantly reduced blood sugar spikes, compared to eating the pudding alone ( 45 ).

However, there are also studies that show cinnamon has no effect on blood sugar.

One review looked at 10 high-quality studies in a total of 577 people with diabetes. The review found no significant difference in blood sugar spikes after participants had taken cinnamon ( 47 ).

There are two types of cinnamon:

  • Cassia: Can come from several different species of Cinnamomum trees. This is the type most commonly found in most supermarkets.
  • Ceylon: Comes specifically from the Cinnamomum verum tree. It is more expensive, but may contain more antioxidants.

Cassia cinnamon contains a potentially harmful substance called coumarin.

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has set the tolerable daily intake of coumarin at 0.045 mg per pound of body weight (0.1mg/kg). This is around half a teaspoon (1 gram) of Cassia cinnamon for a 165-pound (75-kg) person (48).


One of the properties of fenugreek is that the seeds are high in soluble fiber.

This helps prevent blood sugar spikes by slowing down the digestion and absorption of carbs.

However, it appears that blood sugar levels may benefit from more than just the seeds.

In one study, 20 healthy people were given powdered fenugreek leaves mixed with water before they ate. The study found the fenugreek reduced their blood sugar levels after eating by 13.4%, compared to the placebo ( 49 ).

An analysis of 10 studies found that fenugreek significantly reduced blood sugar two hours after eating ( 50 ).

Fenugreek may help reduce blood sugar spikes. It can be added to food, but it does have quite a strong taste, so some people prefer to take it as a supplement.

Summary: Both cinnamon and fenugreek are relatively safe. They may have beneficial effects on your blood sugar if you take them with a meal that contains carbs.

Berberine is a chemical that can be extracted from several different plants (51).

It has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Some of its uses include cholesterol reduction, weight loss and blood sugar control ( 52 , 53 ).

Berberine reduces the amount of sugar produced by the liver and increases insulin sensitivity. It has even been found to be as effective as some drugs used for type 2 diabetes ( 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 ).

One study looked at 116 people with type 2 diabetes who either received berberine or a placebo for three months. Berberine reduced blood sugar spikes after a meal by 25% ( 58 ).

However, another study found berberine caused side effects in some people, such as diarrhea, constipation and gas ( 59 ).

Although berberine appears to be fairly safe, speak to your doctor before taking it if you have any medical conditions or are taking any medication.

Summary: Berberine has minimal side effects and studies have shown it can reduce blood sugar spikes by 25% after you eat it.

If you really want to reduce your blood sugar spikes, you should also consider these lifestyle factors that can affect blood sugar.


Stress can negatively affect your health in a number of ways, causing headaches, increased blood pressure and anxiety.

It has also been shown to affect blood sugar. As stress levels go up, your body releases certain hormones. The effect is to release stored energy in the form of sugar into your bloodstream for the fight-or-flight response (60).

One study of 241 Italian workers found an increase in work-related stress was directly linked to an increase in blood sugar levels ( 61 ).

Actively addressing stress has also been found to benefit your blood sugar. In a study of nursing students, yoga exercises were found to reduce stress and blood sugar spikes following a meal ( 62 ).


Both too little and too much sleep have been associated with poor blood sugar control.

A study in 4,870 adults with type 2 diabetes found those who slept for the longest or shortest durations had the poorest blood sugar control. The best control was found in those who slept between 6.5 and 7.4 hours a night ( 63 ).

Even having one or two bad nights can affect your blood sugar levels.

A study of nine healthy people showed that sleeping too little, or only for 4 hours, increased insulin resistance and blood sugar levels ( 64 ).

With sleep, quality is as important as quantity. A study found the deepest level of sleep (NREM) to be most important in terms of controlling blood sugar ( 65 ).


Alcoholic drinks often contain a lot of added sugar. This is particularly true for mixed drinks and cocktails, which can contain up to 30 grams of sugar per serving.

The sugar in alcoholic drinks will cause blood sugar spikes in the same way as added sugar in food. Most alcoholic drinks also have little or no nutritional value. As with added sugar, they are effectively empty calories.

Furthermore, over time, heavy drinking can decrease the effectiveness of insulin, which leads to high blood sugar and can eventually lead to type 2 diabetes ( 66 ).

However, studies show that moderate, controlled drinking can actually have a protective effect when it comes to blood sugar control and can also lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes ( 67 , 68 , 69 ).

One study found that drinking moderate amounts of alcohol with meals may reduce blood sugar spikes by up to 37% ( 70 ).

Summary: Poor sleep, stress and high alcohol intake all negatively affect blood sugar. That’s why it is important to consider lifestyle interventions as well as diet.

Simple dietary changes, such as sticking to a low-carb, high-fiber diet and avoiding added sugars and refined grains, can help you avoid blood sugar spikes.

Exercising regularly, maintaining a healthy weight and drinking plenty of water can also have added benefits to your health beyond helping to control your blood sugar.

That said, if you have any medical conditions or are on any medications, speak to your doctor before making any changes to your diet.

For most people, making these simple diet and lifestyle changes is a great way to lower your risk of developing insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes.

(community.competitors, customer,law,loss, prices, profit,taxes,wages)
1. Focus only on making a big ___ employees low ___
3.charge high ___
4.never break the ___
5.avoid paying ___ to the government
6.believe the ___ is always right
7.invest in the local ___
8. Put your ___ out of business
9. Be prepared to make a ___ for at least the first year.


Проверено экспертом

1. Focus only on making a big profit employees low wages

3.charge high prices

4.never break the law

5.avoid paying taxes to the government

6.believe the customer is always right

7.invest in the local community

8. Put your competitors out of business

9. Be prepared to make a loss for at least the first year

Finance English practice: Unit 34 — Futures

  • Complete the sentences below. Use the key words if necessary.
    • Commodity futures

    are agreements to sell an asset at a fixed price on a fixed date in the future. are traded on a wide range of agricultural products (including wheat, maize, soybeans, pork, beef, sugar, tea, coffee, cocoa and orange juice), industrial metals (aluminium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc), precious metals (gold, silver, platinum and palladium) and oil. These products are known as .

    Futures were invented to enable regular buyers and sellers of commodities to protect themselves against losses or to against future changes in the price. If they both agree to hedge, the seller (e.g. an orange grower) is protected from a fall in price and the buyer (e.g. an orange juiced manufacturer) is protected from a rise in price.

    Futures are contracts — contracts which are for fixed quantities (such as one ton of copper or 100 ounces of gold) and fixed time periods (normally three, six or nine months) — that are traded on a special exchange.

    Forwards are individual, contracts between two parties, traded — directly, between, two companies of financial institutions, rather than through an exchange. The futures price for a commodity is normally higher than its — the price that would be paid for immediate delivery. Sometimes, however, short-term demand pushes the spot price above the future price. This is called .

    Futures and forwards are also used by speculators — people who hope to profit from price changes.

    More recently, have been developed. These are standardized contracts, traded on exchanges, to buy and sell financial assets. Financial assets such as currencies, interest rates, stocks and stock market indexes — continuously vary — so financial futures are used to fix a value for a specified future date (e.g. sell euros for dollars at a rate of €1 for $1.20 on June 30).

    and are contracts that specify the price at which a certain currency will be bought or sold on a specified date.

    are agreements between banks and investors and companies to issue fixed income securities (bonds, certificates of deposit, money market deposits, etc.) at a future date.

    fix a price for a stock and fix a value for an index (e.g. the Dow Jones or the FTSE) on a certain date. They are alternatives to buying the stocks or shares themselves.

    Like futures for physical commodities, financial futures can be used both to hedge and to speculate. Obviously the buyer and seller of a financial future have different opinions about what will happen to exchange rates, interest rates and stock prices. They are both taking an unlimited risk, because there could be huge changes in rates and prices during the period of the contract. Futures trading is a , because the amount of money gained by one party will be the same as the sum lost by the other.

  • British English or American English?
    • aliminium
      • British English
      • American English

    • aluminum
      • American English
      • British English

  • Match the definitions with the words below.
    • 1. the price for the immediate purchase and delivery of a commodity — . . .

      Commodities Corner

      Myra P. Saefong

      Global sugar production is forecast to hit a fiscal year record

      Some analysts expect sugar prices to drop to a 14-year low of 8 cents a pound

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      Sugar prices have fallen to their lowest levels in a decade and are likely to drop further as record world-wide production collides with healthier eating.

      Raw sugar futures traded on the ICE Futures U.S. exchange US:SBV8 settled at 10.1 cents a pound on Monday, the lowest finish for a front-month contract since June 10, 2008, according to Dow Jones Market Data. Year to date, prices have lost more than 32%—the biggest percentage decline so far among major commodities.

      “The world has gone from supply deficit to supply surplus in the past year and a half,” says Sal Gilbertie, president and chief investment officer at Teucrium Trading. “This year, both India, the world’s second-largest producer of sugar, and Thailand, the world’s fourth-largest sugar producer, are having record production years, which has ballooned the surplus.”

      World sugar production is forecast to reach a record level of 187.6 million metric tons in the 2020-18 marketing year, according to the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization, or FAO. That would mark an increase of just over 11% from the previous year.

      “The substantial expected expansion in world sugar output means that production is set to surpass utilization by as much as 17 million [metric tons], the largest production surplus in history, leading to significant accumulated inventories, in both importing and exporting countries,” the FAO wrote in a biannual report published in July.

      Robin Shaw, a sugar analyst at brokerage Marex Spectron, explains that sugar cane production doesn’t decline significantly as prices fall because the crop, which is classified as a species of grass, can be cut back for five or six years in a row, meaning that it is seldom dug up to plant another crop.

      He also points out that sugar is “protected all around the world by high import duties and export subsidies.” The Indian government — and, to a lesser extent, Pakistan — have been “keeping cane prices artificially high in order to win farmers’ votes, leading to massive surges in production.”

      Against that backdrop, uncertainty surrounds sugar demand.

      Demand is “stationary” or even declining in the European Union, the U.S. and Australia, says Shaw, as consumers opt for healthier alternatives. The U.S. Department of Agriculture forecasts total domestic sugar use for the 2020-19 fiscal year at 11.33 million metric tons, little changed from the 11.27 million expected for the current fiscal year. However, in the rest of the world, sugar demand is “almost certainly still rising” due to population growth, if nothing else, he says.

      In China, sugar consumption for the 2020-19 marketing year is forecast to stand unchanged at 15.7 million tons, with growth “limited by increasing health concerns and competition from sugar and sweetener replacements,” according to the FAO.

      Overall, emerging markets are “experiencing turmoil, and we see expectations of lower demand going forward,” says Darren Kottle, portfolio manager of the Catalyst Multi-Strategy managed-futures fund ACXIX, +0.15% .

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      Strength in the U.S. dollar DXY, -0.01% has also contributed to the drop in sugar prices, as well as an overall decline in the Bloomberg Commodity Index, which has lost roughly 5.1% this year as of Friday. “A stronger U.S. dollar versus the [Brazilian] real USDBRL, +0.01% and [Indian] rupee USDINR, +0.45% increases Brazilian and Indian producers’ profits in their local currency, perhaps spurring them to increase production,” says Jeff Klearman, portfolio manager at exchange-traded-fund issuer GraniteShares. A stronger greenback also tends to lower commodity prices, including those for sugar, he adds.

      Longer-term, sugar’s supply surplus will eventually push prices so low that production takes a hit.

      Sugar prices may see a rise to around 15 cents “sometime in 2020,” says Shaw, who estimates that the cost of production for efficient producers such as Brazil and Thailand stands at roughly 12 cents to 14 cents a pound, above the current price of 10 cents. “Prices will, of course, go up as producers go bankrupt, but that is a very slow process,” he says.

      Investors appear to be “dipping their toes in the water” given inflows into sugar-based exchange-traded products, says Gilbertie, whose company sponsors the Teucrium Sugar Fund CANE, +2.30% , which offers unleveraged direct exposure to sugar. The inflows suggest that investors are “taking a view that sugar prices could be at or near a multiyear cyclical bottom,” he says.

      Meanwhile, sugar prices are likely to decline even further. “I don’t see anything in the near term that suggests an inevitable reversal of sugar’s drop,” says Kottle, adding that some analysts expect to see eight cents a pound. That would be the lowest in roughly 14 years.

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